Advertisement

Imaging of Metastatic Disease to the Ovary/Adnexa

Published:October 20, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mric.2022.06.005

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'

      Subscribers receive full online access to your subscription and archive of back issues up to and including 2002.

      Content published before 2002 is available via pay-per-view purchase only.

      Subscribe:

      Subscribe to Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect

      References

        • Riihimaki M.
        • Thomsen H.
        • Sundquist K.
        • et al.
        Clinical landscape of cancer metastases.
        Cancer Med. 2018; 7: 5534-5542
        • Karpathiou G.
        • Chauleur C.
        • Hathroubi S.
        • et al.
        Secondary Tumors of the Gynecologic Tract: A Clinicopathologic Analysis.
        Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2019; 38: 363-370
        • Kubecek O.
        • Laco J.
        • Spacek J.
        • et al.
        The pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of metastatic tumors to the ovary: a comprehensive review.
        Clin Exp Metastasis. 2017; 34: 295-307
        • Ajani M.A.
        • Iyapo O.
        • Salami A.
        • et al.
        Secondary Ovarian Neoplasms in a Tertiary Hospital in Southwestern Nigeria.
        Ann Ib Postgrad Med. 2019; 17: 19-23
        • Alvarado-Cabrero I.
        • Rodriguez-Gomez A.
        • Castelan-Pedraza J.
        • et al.
        Metastatic ovarian tumors: a clinicopathologic study of 150 cases.
        Anal Quant Cytopathol Histpathol. 2013; 35: 241-248
        • Antila R.
        • Jalkanen J.
        • Heikinheimo O.
        Comparison of secondary and primary ovarian malignancies reveals differences in their pre- and perioperative characteristics.
        Gynecol Oncol. 2006; 101: 97-101
        • de Waal Y.R.
        • Thomas C.M.
        • Oei A.L.
        • et al.
        Secondary ovarian malignancies: frequency, origin, and characteristics.
        Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2009; 19: 1160-1165
        • Demopoulos R.I.
        • Touger L.
        • Dubin N.
        Secondary ovarian carcinoma: a clinical and pathological evaluation.
        Int J Gynecol Pathol. 1987; 6: 166-175
        • Khunamornpong S.
        • Suprasert P.
        • Chiangmai W.N.
        • et al.
        Metastatic tumors to the ovaries: a study of 170 cases in northern Thailand.
        Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006; 16: 132-138
        • Yada-Hashimoto N.
        • Yamamoto T.
        • Kamiura S.
        • et al.
        Metastatic ovarian tumors: a review of 64 cases.
        Gynecol Oncol. 2003; 89: 314-317
        • Lerwill M.F.
        • Young R H.
        Metastatic Tumors of the Ovary.
        in: Kurman R. Ellenson L.H. Ronnett B. Blaustein's Pathology of the Female Genital Tract. Springer, Cham2019https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-46334-6_18
        • Bruls J.
        • Simons M.
        • Overbeek L.I.
        • et al.
        A national population-based study provides insight in the origin of malignancies metastatic to the ovary.
        Virchows Arch. 2015; 467: 79-86
        • Moore R.G.
        • Chung M.
        • Granai C.O.
        • et al.
        Incidence of metastasis to the ovaries from nongenital tract primary tumors.
        Gynecol Oncol. 2004; 93: 87-91
        • Zhang J.J.
        • Cao D.Y.
        • Yang J.X.
        • et al.
        Ovarian metastasis from nongynecologic primary sites: a retrospective analysis of 177 cases and 13-year experience.
        J Ovarian Res. 2020; 13: 128
        • Jemal A.
        • Bray F.
        • Center M.M.
        • et al.
        Global cancer statistics.
        CA Cancer J Clin. 2011; 61: 69-90
        • Center M.M.
        • Jemal A.
        • Ward E.
        International trends in colorectal cancer incidence rates.
        Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009; 18: 1688-1694
        • Guerriero S.
        • Alcazar J.L.
        • Pascual M.A.
        • et al.
        Preoperative diagnosis of metastatic ovarian cancer is related to origin of primary tumor.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 39: 581-586
        • Lee S.J.
        • Bae J.H.
        • Lee A.W.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics of metastatic tumors to the ovaries.
        J Korean Med Sci. 2009; 24: 114-119
        • Kiyokawa T.
        • Young R.H.
        • Scully R.E.
        Krukenberg tumors of the ovary: a clinicopathologic analysis of 120 cases with emphasis on their variable pathologic manifestations.
        Am J Surg Pathol. 2006; 30: 277-299
        • Kodama M.
        • Moeini A.
        • Machida H.
        • et al.
        Feto-maternal outcomes of pregnancy complicated by Krukenberg tumor: a systematic review of literature.
        Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2016; 294: 589-598
        • Stewart C.J.
        • Leung Y.C.
        • Whitehouse A.
        Fallopian tube metastases of non-gynaecological origin: a series of 20 cases emphasizing patterns of involvement including intra-epithelial spread.
        Histopathology. 2012; 60: E106-E114
        • Agnes A.
        • Biondi A.
        • Ricci R.
        • et al.
        Krukenberg tumors: Seed, route and soil.
        Surg Oncol. 2017; 26: 438-445
        • Duarte I.
        • Llanos O.
        Patterns of metastases in intestinal and diffuse types of carcinoma of the stomach.
        Hum Pathol. 1981; 12: 237-242
        • Sal V.
        • Demirkiran F.
        • Topuz S.
        • et al.
        Surgical Treatment of Metastatic Ovarian Tumors From Extragenital Primary Sites.
        Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2016; 26: 688-696
        • Bruchim I.
        • Ben-Harim Z.
        • Piura E.
        • et al.
        Preoperative clinical and radiological features of metastatic ovarian tumors.
        Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2013; 288: 615-619
        • Jung Y.E.
        • Lee J.W.
        • Kim B.G.
        • et al.
        Ovarian metastasis from pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
        Obstet Gynecol Sci. 2013; 56: 341-344
        • Sandhu S.
        • Arafat O.
        • Patel H.
        • et al.
        Krukenberg tumor: a rare cause of ovarian torsion.
        J Clin Imaging Sci. 2012; 2: 6
        • La Fianza A.
        • Cassani C.
        • Ori Belometti G.
        Intralesional hemorrhage in Krukenberg tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
        J Ultrasound. 2013; 16: 89-91
        • Nagakura S.
        • Shirai Y.
        • Hatakeyama K.
        Pseudo-Meigs' syndrome caused by secondary ovarian tumors from gastrointestinal cancer. A case report and review of the literature.
        Dig Surg. 2000; 17: 418-419
        • Tanaka Y.O.
        • Takazawa Y.
        • Matsuura M.
        • et al.
        MR Imaging of Secondary Massive Ovarian Edema Caused by Ovarian Metastasis from Appendiceal Adenocarcinoma.
        Magn Reson Med Sci. 2019; 18: 111-112
        • Bhosale P.R.
        • Javitt M.C.
        • Atri M.
        • et al.
        ACR Appropriateness Criteria(R) Acute Pelvic Pain in the Reproductive Age Group.
        Ultrasound Q. 2016; 32: 108-115
        • Expert Panel on Gastrointestinal I.
        • Scheirey C.D.
        • Fowler K.J.
        • et al.
        ACR Appropriateness Criteria((R)) Acute Nonlocalized Abdominal Pain.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2018; 15: S217-S231
        • Expert Panel on GYN
        • Imaging O.B.
        • Henrichsen T.L.
        • et al.
        ACR Appropriateness Criteria(R) Postmenopausal Acute Pelvic Pain.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2021; 18: S119-S125
        • Expert Panel on Women's I.
        • Maturen K.E.
        • Akin E.A.
        • et al.
        ACR Appropriateness Criteria((R)) Postmenopausal Subacute or Chronic Pelvic Pain.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2018; 15: S365-S372
        • Benson A.B.
        • Venook A.P.
        • Al-Hawary M.M.
        • et al.
        Colon Cancer, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.
        J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2021; 19: 329-359
        • Karaosmanoglu A.D.
        • Onur M.R.
        • Salman M.C.
        • et al.
        Imaging in secondary tumors of the ovary.
        Abdom Radiol (NY). 2019; 44: 1493-1505
        • Taylor E.C.
        • Irshaid L.
        • Mathur M.
        Multimodality Imaging Approach to Ovarian Neoplasms with Pathologic Correlation.
        Radiographics. 2021; 41: 289-315
        • Testa A.C.
        • Ferrandina G.
        • Timmerman D.
        • et al.
        Imaging in gynecological disease (1): ultrasound features of metastases in the ovaries differ depending on the origin of the primary tumor.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2007; 29: 505-511
        • Andreotti R.F.
        • Timmerman D.
        • Strachowski L.M.
        • et al.
        O-RADS US Risk Stratification and Management System: A Consensus Guideline from the ACR Ovarian-Adnexal Reporting and Data System Committee.
        Radiology. 2020; 294: 168-185
        • Expert Panel on Women's I.
        • Atri M.
        • Alabousi A.
        • et al.
        ACR Appropriateness Criteria((R)) Clinically Suspected Adnexal Mass, No Acute Symptoms.
        J Am Coll Radiol. 2019; 16: S77-S93
        • Heatley M.K.
        Mucinous tumours of the ovary--primary and metastatic.
        J Clin Pathol. 2012; 65: 577-579
        • Balthazar E.J.
        • Siegel S.E.
        • Megibow A.J.
        • et al.
        CT in patients with scirrhous carcinoma of the GI tract: imaging findings and value for tumor detection and staging.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995; 165: 839-845
        • Gollub M.J.
        • Schwartz L.H.
        • Akhurst T.
        Update on colorectal cancer imaging.
        Radiol Clin North Am. 2007; 45: 85-118
        • Park S.H.
        • Lee J.J.
        • Kim H.O.
        • et al.
        18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography/computed tomography in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma: variation in 18F-FDG avidity according to site involvement.
        Leuk Lymphoma. 2015; 56: 3288-3294
        • Bouchelouche K.
        PET/CT in Bladder Cancer: An Update.
        Semin Nucl Med. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semnuclmed.2021.12.004
        • Tirada N.
        • Dreizin D.
        • Khati N.J.
        • et al.
        Imaging Pregnant and Lactating Patients.
        Radiographics. 2015; 35: 1751-1765
        • Sakala M.D.
        • Shampain K.L.
        • Wasnik A.P.
        Advances in MR Imaging of the Female Pelvis.
        Magn Reson Imaging Clin N Am. 2020; 28: 415-431
        • Sadowski E.A.
        • Robbins J.B.
        • Rockall A.G.
        • et al.
        A systematic approach to adnexal masses discovered on ultrasound: the ADNEx MR scoring system.
        Abdom Radiol (NY). 2018; 43: 679-695
        • Sadowski E.A.
        • Thomassin-Naggara I.
        • Rockall A.
        • et al.
        O-RADS MRI Risk Stratification System: Guide for Assessing Adnexal Lesions from the ACR O-RADS Committee.
        Radiology. 2022; : 204371https://doi.org/10.1148/radiol.204371
        • Willmott F.
        • Allouni K.A.
        • Rockall A.
        Radiological manifestations of metastasis to the ovary.
        J Clin Pathol. 2012; 65: 585-590
        • Brown D.L.
        • Zou K.H.
        • Tempany C.M.
        • et al.
        Primary versus secondary ovarian malignancy: imaging findings of adnexal masses in the Radiology Diagnostic Oncology Group Study.
        Radiology. 2001; 219: 213-218
        • Ahmed S.A.
        • Taieb H.A.
        Variations in radiological features between primary and secondary ovarian malignancies.
        Egypt J Radiol Nucl Med. 2018; 49: 828-837
        • Chang W.C.
        • Meux M.D.
        • Yeh B.M.
        • et al.
        CT and MRI of adnexal masses in patients with primary nonovarian malignancy.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006; 186: 1039-1045
        • Koyama T.
        • Mikami Y.
        • Saga T.
        • et al.
        Secondary ovarian tumors: spectrum of CT and MR features with pathologic correlation.
        Abdom Imaging. 2007; 32: 784-795
        • Shinagare A.B.
        • Gujrathi I.
        • Cochon L.
        • et al.
        Predictors of malignancy in incidental adnexal lesions identified on CT in patients with prior non-ovarian cancer.
        Abdom Radiol (NY). 2022; 47: 320-327
        • Xu Y.
        • Yang J.
        • Zhang Z.
        • et al.
        MRI for discriminating metastatic ovarian tumors from primary epithelial ovarian cancers.
        J Ovarian Res. 2015; 8: 61
        • Szklaruk J.
        • Tamm E.P.
        • Choi H.
        • et al.
        MR imaging of common and uncommon large pelvic masses.
        Radiographics. 2003; 23: 403-424
        • Imaoka I.
        • Wada A.
        • Kaji Y.
        • et al.
        Developing an MR imaging strategy for diagnosis of ovarian masses.
        Radiographics. 2006; 26: 1431-1448
        • Jung S.E.
        • Lee J.M.
        • Rha S.E.
        • et al.
        CT and MR imaging of ovarian tumors with emphasis on differential diagnosis.
        Radiographics. 2002; 22: 1305-1325
        • Zulfiqar M.
        • Koen J.
        • Nougaret S.
        • et al.
        Krukenberg Tumors: Update on Imaging and Clinical Features.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020; 215: 1020-1029
        • Cho J.Y.
        • Seong C.K.
        • Kim S.H.
        Krukenberg tumor findings at color and power Doppler US; correlation with findings at CT, MR imaging, and pathology. Case reports.
        Acta Radiol. 1998; 39: 327-329
        • Chou M.M.
        • Ho E.S.
        • Lin N.F.
        • et al.
        Color Doppler sonographic appearance of a Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 1998; 11: 459-460
        • Co P.V.
        • Gupta A.
        • Attar B.M.
        • et al.
        Gastric cancer presenting as a krukenberg tumor at 22 weeks' gestation.
        J Gastric Cancer. 2014; 14: 275-278
        • Jeong Y.Y.
        • Kang H.K.
        • Seo J.J.
        • et al.
        Luteinized fat in Krukenberg tumor: MR findings.
        Eur Radiol. 2002; 12: S130-S132
        • Kim S.H.
        • Kim W.H.
        • Park K.J.
        • et al.
        CT and MR findings of Krukenberg tumors: comparison with primary ovarian tumors.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1996; 20: 393-398
        • Mendoza-Rosado F.
        • Nunez-Isaac O.
        • Espinosa-Marron A.
        • et al.
        Krukenberg tumor as an incidental finding in a full-term pregnancy: a case report.
        J Med Case Rep. 2021; 15: 304
        • Ha H.K.
        • Baek S.Y.
        • Kim S.H.
        • et al.
        Krukenberg's tumor of the ovary: MR imaging features.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1995; 164: 1435-1439
        • Choi H.J.
        • Lee J.H.
        • Kang S.
        • et al.
        Contrast-enhanced CT for differentiation of ovarian metastasis from gastrointestinal tract cancer: stomach cancer versus colon cancer.
        AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006; 187: 741-745
        • Choi H.J.
        • Lee J.H.
        • Seo S.S.
        • et al.
        Computed tomography findings of ovarian metastases from colon cancer: comparison with primary malignant ovarian tumors.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2005; 29: 69-73
        • Goidescu I.G.
        • Nemeti G.
        • Preda A.
        • et al.
        Krukenberg tumor in pregnancy: a rare case and review of the literature.
        J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2021; : 1-6https://doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1946788
        • Laurent P.E.
        • Thomassin-Piana J.
        • Jalaguier-Coudray A.
        Mucin-producing tumors of the ovary: MR imaging appearance.
        Diagn Interv Imaging. 2015; 96: 1125-1132
        • Kir G.
        • Gurbuz A.
        • Karateke A.
        • et al.
        Clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical profile of ovarian metastases from colorectal carcinoma.
        World J Gastrointest Surg. 2010; 2: 109-116
        • Li X.
        • Zhang W.
        • Ding P.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of colorectal cancer patients with ovarian metastasis: a multicenter retrospective study.
        Int J Colorectal Dis. 2021; 36: 1201-1208
        • Kurokawa R.
        • Nakai Y.
        • Gonoi W.
        • et al.
        Differentiation between ovarian metastasis from colorectal carcinoma and primary ovarian carcinoma: Evaluation of tumour markers and "mille-feuille sign" on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging.
        Eur J Radiol. 2020; 124: 108823
        • Seidman J.D.
        • Kurman R.J.
        • Ronnett B.M.
        Primary and metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas in the ovaries: incidence in routine practice with a new approach to improve intraoperative diagnosis.
        Am J Surg Pathol. 2003; 27: 985-993
        • Khunamornpong S.
        • Suprasert P.
        • Pojchamarnwiputh S.
        • et al.
        Primary and metastatic mucinous adenocarcinomas of the ovary: Evaluation of the diagnostic approach using tumor size and laterality.
        Gynecol Oncol. 2006; 101: 152-157
        • Abd El hafez A.
        • Monir A.
        Diagnostic spectrum of ovarian masses in women with breast cancer; magnetic resonance imaging: histopathology correlation.
        Ann Diagn Pathol. 2013; 17: 441-447
        • Moore E.K.
        • Roylance R.
        • Rosenthal A.N.
        Breast cancer metastasising to the pelvis and abdomen: what the gynaecologist needs to know.
        BJOG. 2012; 119: 788-794
        • Tian W.
        • Zhou Y.
        • Wu M.
        • et al.
        Ovarian metastasis from breast cancer: a comprehensive review.
        Clin Transl Oncol. 2019; 21: 819-827
        • Peters I.T.
        • van Zwet E.W.
        • Smit V.T.
        • et al.
        Prevalence and Risk Factors of Ovarian Metastases in Breast Cancer Patients < 41 Years of Age in the Netherlands: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.
        PLoS One. 2017; 12: e0168277
        • Simpkins F.
        • Zahurak M.
        • Armstrong D.
        • et al.
        Ovarian malignancy in breast cancer patients with an adnexal mass.
        Obstet Gynecol. 2005; 105: 507-513
        • Reinert T.
        • Nogueira-Rodrigues A.
        • Kestelman F.P.
        • et al.
        The Challenge of Evaluating Adnexal Masses in Patients With Breast Cancer.
        Clin Breast Cancer. 2018; 18: e587-e594
        • Baiocchi G.
        • Clemente A.G.
        • Mantoan H.
        • et al.
        Adnexal Involvement in Endometrial Cancer: Prognostic Factors and Implications for Ovarian Preservation.
        Ann Surg Oncol. 2020; 27: 2822-2826
        • Cheng H.
        • Huo L.
        • Zong L.
        • et al.
        Oncological Outcomes and Safety of Ovarian Preservation for Early Stage Adenocarcinoma of Cervix: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
        Front Oncol. 2019; 9: 777
        • Kuria M.
        • Gitau S.
        • Warfa K.
        Cervical cancer with bilateral ovarian metastases: case report and review of literature.
        BJR Case Rep. 2018; 4: 20180047
        • Moro F.
        • Leombroni M.
        • Pasciuto T.
        • et al.
        Synchronous primary cancers of endometrium and ovary vs endometrial cancer with ovarian metastasis: an observational study.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2019; 53: 827-835
        • Slonimsky E.
        • Korach J.
        • Perri T.
        • et al.
        Gynecological Lymphoma: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.
        J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2018; 42: 435-440
        • Meriden Z.
        • Yemelyanova A.V.
        • Vang R.
        • et al.
        Ovarian metastases of pancreaticobiliary tract adenocarcinomas: analysis of 35 cases, with emphasis on the ability of metastases to simulate primary ovarian mucinous tumors.
        Am J Surg Pathol. 2011; 35: 276-288
        • Badin J.
        • Abello A.
        • Gupta M.
        • et al.
        Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder With a Rare Solitary Metastasis to the Ovary.
        Urology. 2020; 135: 24-27
        • Bus M.T.
        • Cordeiro E.R.
        • Anastasiadis A.
        • et al.
        Urothelial carcinoma in both adnexa following perforation during transurethral resection of a non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor: a case report and literature review.
        Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2012; 12: 1529-1536
        • Taylor B.L.
        • Matrai C.E.
        • Smith A.L.
        • et al.
        Gynecologic Organ Involvement During Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer: Is It Time to Routinely Spare the Ovaries?.
        Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2019; 17: e209-e215
        • Abe Y.
        • Takeuchi M.
        • Matsuzaki K.
        • et al.
        A case of metastatic malignant melanoma of the ovary with a multilocular cystic appearance on MR imaging.
        Jpn J Radiol. 2009; 27: 458-461
        • Moselhi M.
        • Spencer J.
        • Lane G.
        Malignant melanoma metastatic to the ovary: presentation and radiological characteristics.
        Gynecol Oncol. 1998; 69: 165-168
        • Spencer J.A.
        • Anderson K.
        • Weston M.
        • et al.
        Image guided biopsy in the management of cancer of the ovary.
        Cancer Imaging. 2006; 6: 144-147
        • Thabet A.
        • Somarouthu B.
        • Oliva E.
        • et al.
        Image-guided ovarian mass biopsy: efficacy and safety.
        J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2014; 25: 1922-1927 e1
        • Rao S.
        • Smith D.A.
        • Guler E.
        • et al.
        Past, Present, and Future of Serum Tumor Markers in Management of Ovarian Cancer: A Guide for the Radiologist.
        Radiographics. 2021; 41: 1839-1856
        • Moro F.
        • Pasciuto T.
        • Djokovic D.
        • et al.
        Role of CA125/CEA ratio and ultrasound parameters in identifying metastases to the ovaries in patients with multilocular and multilocular-solid ovarian masses.
        Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2019; 53: 116-123
        • Lionetti R.
        • De Luca M.
        • Travaglino A.
        • et al.
        Treatments and overall survival in patients with Krukenberg tumor.
        Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2019; 300: 15-23
        • Sugarbaker P.H.
        • Liang J.
        Ovarian metastases from right colon cancer treated with systemic cancer chemotherapy, a case report.
        Int J Surg Case Rep. 2018; 47: 25-29
        • Lionetti R.
        • De Luca M.
        • Travaglino A.
        • et al.
        Prognostic factors in Krukenberg tumor.
        Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2019; 300: 1155-1165